The Xylarium of Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, founded in 1945, is a collection of wood samples, predominantly regional, supporting work in identifying wood, particularly involving timbers sold in the Amazon region. It is also used for research on wood morphology and anatomy.
Work on wood anatomy was initiated in 1954 by the engineer-agronomist Humberto Marino Koury and, in 1973, this valuable collection was arranged and recorded by Joaquim Ivanir Gomes, a researcher now retired from this institution. The oldest samples, dating back to 1932, are from Tapajós-PA (some 35 samples). The Xylarium collection is represented by 8000 specimens, including 500 samples of commercial timber. There are samples from 91 families, 589 genera and 1,450 species of wood properly cataloged with botanical material equivalent. There is also a collection of 678 slides to subsidize the work of identifying woods.
The best represented families in the Xylarium are: Leguminosae (24%), Rubiaceae (16%), Euphorbiaceae (12%), Sapotaceae (8%), Apocynaceae (6%) and Moraceae (5%), totaling 71% of the total. The Xylarium has been databased using the BRAHMS (Botanical Research and Management System Herbarium).